This weird fish has been classified as an eel, but as it differs from all known eel species in a number of distinct anatomical ways. It was first spotted in March 2010 off the coast of Palau in an underwater cave.
Laotian rock rat (Laonastes aeningmamus)
First described as a new species in 2005, the locals around Laos’ Khammouan Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area have been using the Rock Rat as a food source long before scientists took an interest in it. Thought to be an entirely new species, there has been some controversy after DNA testing linked it to a long-extinct group of mammals known as the Diatomyidae.
The Purple Frog spends nearly all its life underground eating termites and other invertebrates small enough to fit into its unconventionally shaped mouth. Surfacing for a few weeks a year to breed, it only garnered scientific attention in 2003, although farm workers in the Western Ghats region of India have known about it for quite some time.