Yes, this happened in San Antonio, Texas. The director of the city’s Department of Health, H.L. Crittenden, ordered the spraying of DDT along every one of over a thousand streets in May, 1946 in an ill-fated attempt to wipe out polio. A handful of other cities joined in, like Rockford, Illinois, and Paterson, New Jersey. Such an event came from the misguided notion that polio was spread by mosquitoes or other insects. Jonas Salk had yet to begin his groundbreaking work that culminated in a polio vaccine in 1955.
Learn more about the disease and the panic it caused in this short clip: