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Your World This Week: NASA Finds Evidence Of Flowing Water On Mars

Nasa Mars

Satellite images have identified narrow streaks that appear on slopes during warm seasons, lengthen, and then fade when conditions become cooler Image Source: NASA

Scientists are one step closer to providing David Bowie an answer to his decades-old question, “Is there life on Mars?”

Just this morning, NASA scientists announced that they have found evidence of flowing water on the red planet.

“There is liquid water today on the surface of Mars,” said Michael Meyer, the lead scientist on NASA’s Mars exploration program to The Guardian. “Because of this, we suspect that it is at least possible to have a habitable environment today.”

The revelation comes from data collected by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, which indicates that the dark patches that appear on the craters and canyons of Mars—known as the Recurring Slope Lineae—are caused by liquid water streaming down them during the summer months.

In order to come to this conclusion, the Mars scientists devised a new method that allowed chemical signatures to be extracted from individual image pixels, which provided a much high level of resolution that had been achieved before, wrote The Independent.

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How The World Consumes Coffee

Coffee is a global phenomenon, and people have been drinking it all over the world for centuries. As befits a drink that’s enjoyed by cultures that, on the surface, have almost nothing else in common with each other, coffee is roasted, brewed, and drunk in a bewildering variety of ways, some as old as time, others dating back to the first season of Cheers.

In honor of National Coffee Day, which takes place on September 29th, we’ve chosen a handful of countries around the world and assessed their coffee cultures just for you:

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United States

Coffee Culture Ambulance

The United States is a nation of coffee drinkers. Each year, Americans drink 146 billion cups of coffee, more than any other country in the world. Tea is nice for afternoons, or when you're feeling under the weather, but Americans by the hundreds of millions don't consider the day officially started until there's coffee.

With the relatively recent upswing in at-home and freelance workers, coffee shops such as Starbucks have become popular places to get work done. This goes a long way to explaining why Americans pay an average of $3.28 per coffee drink. Image Source: YouTube


Coffee Culture Mexico

Mexico has a habit of getting things right in the kitchen, and coffee is no exception. Authentic Mexican coffee, known as Café de Olla, is served in a ceramic mug with a narrow top, to keep in the heat, and with a cinnamon stick jammed into it. The spicy undertone practically lights the coffee taste on fire and leaves a finish that lasts until you get to the office. The drink is traditionally served to guests at wakes, which can last all night – hence the coffee. Image Source: 10TE


Coffee Culture Italy

Most of the fun of traveling is seeing how different societies approach problems in different ways. In the case of espresso, which is a short, strong jolt of concentrated coffee, it answers the problem of how busy people are supposed to get their morning eye-opener.

In the United States, the answer is to pour an expensive drink into the largest paper cup possible. In Italy, the solution is to serve the drink in a ceramic cup, but in such small portions that it can be gulped and left behind. Sometimes, a slice of lemon is rubbed over the rim for flavor. Image Source: Dianliwenmi


Coffee Culture Turkey

While coffee is a traditional morning drink in most places, in Turkey it's treated almost as a dessert. Turkish coffee is, according to a local proverb: "black as hell, strong as death, and as sweet as love." Turkish coffee is served at temperatures that would trigger lawsuits in America, often with candy and usually after dinner. Image Source: Wikipedia


Coffee Culture Ireland

Most of what Americans think of as "ethnic" food and drink is actually a Disneyfied version of something that was actually invented in the United States. Irish coffee is an exception to this – it really was invented in Ireland in the 1940s. The drink starts with coffee, adds whiskey, and finishes with a whipped cream topper.

American cultural imperialists can claim a moral victory, however, since the Irish coffee seems to have been invented for American servicemen who stopped at Foynes, on Ireland's west coast, to fuel up the flying boats that patrolled the North Atlantic for German submarines. Foynes was also a stopover for connecting flights for American tourists and VIPs traveling elsewhere in Europe. The drink found its way to San Francisco in 1952. Image Source: Caffe Pera

The Netherlands

Coffee Culture Netherlands

Displaying the general niceness of the low countries, coffee in the Netherlands is served plain, but with a small sugar cookie on the side. The Netherlands draws a distinction between a coffee house (koffiehuis), and a café, which also serves cannabis. The cafés aren't allowed to serve alcohol, or any other kind of drug, and if you're a tourist, cafés outside of Amsterdam might refuse you entry. This rule is part of a 2012 initiative to crack down on “marijuana tourism.” Image Source: Just Landed



French coffee is often flavored and served in a wide-mouthed cup. This helps – no kidding – with dunking baguettes. In France, the standard drink is un café, a small cup of espresso. A café americaine is larger, naturally, but diluted with hot water. Interestingly, a single coffee shop in Paris may have three different prices for the same drink, depending on whether you plan to drink it at the bar, at a table, or outdoors. Image Source: Crema Magazine


Coffee Culture Greece

Not every Old World country has a centuries-old tradition for brewing native coffee. The Greek frappé, for example, is actually made with freeze-dried instant coffee, sugar, and evaporated milk. The drink is served cold and, if the café owner spots you for a tourist, you will be overcharged. Outside the home, most Greeks get their coffee from either a kafeteria or a kafenio.

The former is a smallish restaurant where coffee is served with food, while the latter is much more coffee-oriented, with food as almost an afterthought. Until relatively recently, kafenios were regarded as rough, unpolished places that mostly excluded women. Things have changed in recent decades, though, and the legal and social barriers to female kafenio customers have come down. Image Source: Fresh NYC


Coffee Culture London

England has always been torn between coffee and tea as national obsessions. Tea was first served in England in coffee houses, the first of which opened in 1650. These houses, stocked with the coffee, tea, and tobacco that streamed in from Ceylon, Jamaica, and the Carolinas, were an instant hit.

Unlike rowdy taverns, coffee houses were good places to meet, catch up with news, and conduct business. Edward Lloyd, for example, started a coffee house in London in 1688, which quickly became the premiere vendor of maritime insurance for the British trading fleet. Today, Lloyd's of London is still selling insurance, with revenues in the billions. Image Source: Kick Start Café


Coffee Culture Cuba

Cuban coffee is a mixed bag. Coffee is as popular in Cuba as it is anywhere, and the Cubans pour their drinks in shots of almost Turkish strength, but the embargo imposes some hardships. For several years in the 1990s, citizens' coffee rations were mixed with ground beans as bulk filler. “Cuban-style” coffee, which in the United States has to be made with non-Cuban beans, is brewed very strong and sweet. Authentic Cuban coffee, which is mainly exported to Japan and France, has a very high concentration of caffeine. Recent detente between Havana and Washington may make genuine Cuban coffee available in the United States for the first time since 1963. Image Source: TripAdvisor

Coffee Culture Hong Kong

Yuanyang is Hong Kong's good-natured attempt to resolve the coffee-versus-tea debate. This drink, which is named for a species of duck that mates for life, combines strong black tea with coffee and milk. Image Source: Autumn Floods


Coffee Culture India

Indian coffee is sold "by the yard," or "meter-high." The length is a reference to how far apart the vessels should be held when preparing the drink. Indian Kaapi is brewed ridiculously hot, then poured from one stainless steel container to another – at a distance of about three feet – to aerate it. During this back-and-forth pouring, the coffee develops a good head of foam. The final product has a strong flavor, since it's brewed with chicory. Image Source: YouTube


Coffee Culture Russia

Russia has traditionally favored strong tea over coffee, but coffee culture has been changing for decades. Russia now leads the world in the consumption of instant coffee, and coffee shops have been growing like weeds all over the country since the fall of the Soviet Union.

Interestingly, some Russian coffee shops are pioneering a totally novel business model. In the anti-café model, customers get free food and drinks, but pay for time at a table with discounts for bulk reservations. It remains to be seen how profitable this model will be in the long run, but it does encourage people to linger over their drinks until the timer runs out. Image Source: Coffee Trade


Coffee Culture Japan

Japanese coffee culture has developed in waves over the last century. Like Russia, Japan is traditionally a tea-drinking country, but the iced coffee was popular in the country as far back as the 1920s, and may have been invented there. After the war, Japan was occupied by tens of thousands of American soldiers who brought the American taste for coffee with them. Unfortunately, Japan could only import lower-quality beans at the time, and few native roasters could produce a good, strong cup. All this changed in 1971, when the Japanese coffee giant Doutor was founded. Essentially a Japanese Starbucks, it kickstarted the trend of starting busy office workers off for the day with a caffeinated punch in the face.

Doutor coffee is often served to standing customers who are on their way somewhere; the artisan coffee culture of the West, in which the café becomes a "third place" for people just to hang out, hasn't really caught on in Japan, though it's a rare city block or train station that isn't blanketed with coffee shops of all kinds. Image Source: Japan Guide

Saudi Arabia

Bedouin Man Roasting Coffee Beans Over A Campfire At Captain's Desert Camp, Wadi Rum, Jordan

Alcohol is illegal in Saudi Arabia (unless you're related to somebody important), and possession of drugs will get you killed. That leaves coffee as the go-to stimulant for most of the country. Saudi coffee is served black and flavored with cardamom. It's horribly bitter, so there's usually a bowl of dates to cut the flavor. As with most things in a patriarchal dictatorship, there's a strict protocol for serving coffee: Men drink with men, women with women, elders get served first, and nobody leaves until the last drop is gone. Image Source: Worldwide Travel Photography | Blaine Harrington III


Coffee Culture Vietnam

In Vietnam, people drink Ca Phe Sua Da. This is made by pouring condensed milk into a cup, then laying a steel mesh over the top with coarse-ground coffee on it. Pour hot water through the mesh, then drink it with friends. Image Source: The Chosen Glutton


Coffee Culture Ethiopia

People have been drinking coffee in Ethiopia as long as anybody, and an elaborate system of conventions has grown up around it. Buna is strong coffee, brewed over several hours, then poured in small quantities and flavored with salt and butter, rather than sugar and cream. Incidentally, the US Navy also has a tradition of brewing coffee with a dash of salt. It takes some getting used to, but it can be habit forming. Image Source: Pennsylvania State University


Indonesians Farm Civet Cats To Produce World's Most Valuable Coffee

If you come up with something good, such as coffee, somebody somewhere will figure out something weird to do with it. Such is the case with kopi luwak, which is a nice combination of exotic and just gross. To get a proper cup, kopi beans have to pass through the digestive tract of a civet, a mustelid closely related to weasels, and harvested in the animal's droppings. The beans are then hosed down (one hopes) and roasted. Like most very silly things, luwak coffee is absurdly overvalued, with a pound selling for around $150.

As you could probably guess from the price, kopi luwak is mostly sold to tourists or sent off for export, mainly to Japan and Taiwan. Some specialty shops sell kopi luwak by the cup at between $35 and $60 a pour. The harvesters, who have the job of collecting Indonesian weasel dung, make around $10 a pound – of beans, not feces. Image Source: Pilgrim Coffee

Australia and New Zealand

Coffee Culture Flat White

Australia and New Zealand have developed a form of latte (which is emphatically not a latte! Ask anyone from Australia or New Zealand! Not a latte!) that is, at bottom, just coffee with milk in it. What makes the flat white unique is the pedantic set of rules for making one.

The milk has to be steamed, then the bit you use for the drink has to be drawn from the bottom, rather than the top, of the steaming vessel. Numerous conventions have sprung up about how to pour the drink, how or whether to sweeten it, and so on. Basically, it's the cricket of coffee – like baseball, but with more rules than contract bridge. Image Source: The Kitchn

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Video Of The Day: Movie Phone Super Call

Burger Fiction brings us a hilariously delightful supercut of some of Hollywood’s best phone scenes to create one long phone call.


Here’s a list of all of the movies that appear in sequence:

— Burn After Reading
— The Matrix
— Die Hard With A Vengeance
— Dr. Strangelove
— Anchorman
— Dial M For Murder
— Scream
— Heat
— The Bourne Supremacy
— Ferris Bueller’s Day Off
— Ghostbusters
— Napoleon Dynamite
— Crank
— Casino Royale
— Air Force One
— Bridget Jones’s Diary: The Edge Of Reason
— Leon: The Professional
— Shaun Of The Dead
— Tropic Thunder
— Rambo III
— Play Misty For Me
— Wall Street
— Saw
— One Fine Day
— Swingers
— Juno
— Lethal Weapon
— No Country For Old Men
— Catch Me If You Can
— Brick
— A Nightmare On Elm Street
— Back To The Future
— Baby Mama
— Jingle All The Way
— Clueless
— The Hangover
— Phone Booth
— Buried
— Taken
— Rush Hour
— Scarface
— Bringing Up Baby
— Funny Farm
— Black Christmas
— It’s A Wonderful Life
— Spy Hard
— Jerry Maguire
— Out Of Time
— Shoot ‘Em Up
— Pulp Fiction
— Leprechaun
— Cellular
— Twister
— Amelie
— The Wolf Of Wall Street
— Mean Girls
— What About Bob


And if you enjoy watching supercuts, check out A Supercut of Kids Cussing In Cinema and Every Death In Every Tarantino Movie Ever.

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