How Close Are We To Bionic Skin?

Bionic Skin Future

Researchers in Seoul and Cambridge, MA, recently announced new advances in synthetic skin sensitivity.
Source: Pop Science

The history of replacing human skin with something else has been pretty weird from the start. The oldest recorded evidence of medical skin grafts is found in the Egyptian Papyrus of Ebers, which dates back to roughly 1,550 BCE. It describes grafting frog skin over a human wound. Since then, humanity has experimented with porcine skin grafts (‘porcine’ sounds so much loftier than ‘pig’ or ‘swine’, doesn’t it?), artificial skin made of spider silk, and skin grafts from amnion, the thin organic layer around babies in the womb that can be collected with the placenta after birth.

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24 Startling Photos That Explain Apartheid In South Africa

When attempting to understand our present, it is vital to begin with the past. This very much applies when examining contemporary political, economic and cultural struggles in South Africa. While racial discrimination and segregation had existed in colonial South Africa for centuries, it was officially codified into law in 1948 so that minority whites could hold onto power. Under this system, known as apartheid, non-whites were unable to vote and lacked any semblance of economic mobility or educational opportunity. Segregation was the law of the land, and it’s estimated that 3.5 million non-white people were forcibly removed from their homes and relocated to racially segregated areas.

After years of violent and nonviolent protest, apartheid laws were officially overturned in 1991. But it wasn’t until democratic general elections were held in 1994 that non-whites saw the first real fruits of apartheid’s end. The photos below show feature the days when apartheid was law on South African soil–days that are not far removed from our present:

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Racial classification laws were imposed in 1950 and required that each citizen of South Africa be issued an identity document classifying them as White, Native (African) or Coloured. Coloured included individuals that were neither white nor native, and was primarily established for people of mixed heritage. These laws would determine where one could live, work and what public facilities they were able to use. Later, a separate category for Indians would be created and they would suffer at the hands of the minority Afrikaner government as well. Source: 100R

Apartheid Burning Passes

Native Africans burn their pass cards. Pass laws were developed under the slave economy of the British and Dutch to control African movement. They became more stringent in 1952 when Africans were forced to carry a “reference book” which contained personal information at all times. Failure to do so would result in arrest, detainment and torture. Source: Flashbak

Apartheid Homelands

Part of apartheid policy included the creation of Bantustans or homelands, which divided Africans into ten ethnically discrete groups and eliminated representation in the capital of Pretoria. Each group was assigned a “homeland” which was used to identify them as citizens of a homeland, not South Africa itself. This served as a way to forcibly remove Africans from their property, bulldoze their homes and exile them to homelands. More than 860,000 blacks were segregated to overcrowded slums called resettlement camps. Source: Espresso Stalinist

Apartheid Sash

Founded in 1955, the Black Sash organization was a group of white women who protested the abolishment of black voting rights. Participants would stand quietly in public locations wearing a symbolic black sash. They also set up legal advice centers to assist Africans with governmental issues. These advice centers continue to operate today, providing paralegal services and conducting human rights monitoring, education and research. Source: MSU

Apartheid Rules

A poster made by the Anti-Apartheid Movement in the United Kingdom outlined the rules of apartheid as established by the National Party. Racial segregation was rampant, impacting all aspects of private and public life. Source: Espresso Stalinist

Apartheid Ad

Nelson Mandela (pictured on the right) would become an icon of the anti-apartheid movement, joining the African National Congress political party and fighting against the repressive regime. Mandela was persecuted for his beliefs and political action along with many others, while the South African Tourist Corporation published propagandistic ads like the one on the left. Source: Wordpress

Apartheid Parliament

On February 3, 1960, Harold MacMillian, the British Prime Minister, addressed a meeting of 250 members of Parliament in Cape Town. He informed the South African military police that Britain disagreed with some of their policies. Britain and the United States, while unsupportive of the policy of apartheid, would continue to maintain economic relations with the country and often voted against sanctions. Source:

Apartheid Mother

A mother bathes her child in a tin pail in a town surrounded by detritus. A bulldozer collects materials from the piles of leftover homes. Filthy and hazardous conditions in the resettlement camps plagued blacks and they were always at the risk of government harassment. Source: Yazkam

Apartheid Sharpeville Police

Five thousand black protestors assembled outside of the Sharpeville police station on March 21, 1960, to express their anger against pass laws. The police opened fire on the protestors, killing 69 individuals, many of whom were shot in the back as they tried to escape. Source: South Africa Civil Rights

Apartheid Sharpeville

The uproar among the black population was instantaneous and the following week was marked by demonstrations, marches and riots throughout the nation. Following the massacre, the United Nations condemned South Africa’s actions and the nation would gradually become isolated. The South African government banned the African National Congress and its rival political party, the Pan-Africanist Congress, after the protests because of their association with political organizing and protests. Source: MSU

Apartheid Effigy

Anti-apartheid protestors burn South African Foreign Minister Eric Louw in effigy on October 13, 1961. At one time pro-Nazi and an ardent supporter of apartheid, Louw left his post in 1963 following official censure from the United Nations. Source: Flashbak

Apartheid Africa Day

Protestors in South Africa hold signs demanding the freedom of South Africa on Africa Day. Africa Day is the annual commemoration of the founding of the Organization of African Unity that established independence for some African countries in 1962. Source: MSU

Apartheid Graffiti

Anti-apartheid graffiti examines the lunacy behind segregation politics. To this day, progressive graffiti still graces the streets of Johannesburg, Cape Town and Pretoria. Source: Wordpress

Apartheid Rivonia

The trial that changed South Africa took place in October 1963 and put ten anti-apartheid activists on trial in an attempt to save their lives. The ten protestors, including Nelson Mandela, were charged with two counts of sabotage and eight of them would be convicted. Mandela would serve 27 years in prison. Source: UMKC

Apartheid Soweto

A series of protests began on June 16, 1976 in Soweto in response to an official decree that introduced Afrikaans, the language of the Afrikaners, as the language of instruction in local schools. Black high school students protested in the streets of Soweto and were met by armed police. The death toll was 176, though some estimates say 700 perished. Source: Wordpress

Apartheid March

On March 30, 1960, hundreds of black protestors descend on Cape Town to demand the release of their political leaders who were arrested during early morning raids on their homes. Stolen under the cover of darkness, the Nationalist Party would arrest rival political leaders in an attempt to maintain control and ensure the success of apartheid. Source: City Lab

Apartheid Biko

Steve Biko was an anti-apartheid activist and student leader who founded the Black Consciousness Movement, which would motivate much of the black urban population in the 1960s and 1970s. Biko was famous for his “black is beautiful” slogan and became a martyr for the movement when he died suspiciously while in police custody. Source: Dbsjeyaraj

Apartheid US Out

In the 1980s anti-apartheid protests spread across the United States with demonstrations on college campuses, at the national capitol and even in movies. Protestors called for divestment to ensure that taxpayers’ dollars were not being used for the systematic repression of blacks in South Africa. Source: Jon Jeter

Apartheid Protest

Protests spread throughout New Zealand when the South African rugby team, the Springboks, competed in the country in 1981. New Zealanders did not support apartheid and believed that the Springboks should be banned from playing in their country. It became clear that South Africa’s racialist policies wouldn’t survive the education and development of the world. Source: Times Union

Apartheid Boycott

In 1986, a young black man rides a whites-only bus in an act of non-violent resistance against apartheid. As the government continued to persecute non-whites, more political groups would rally and protest, allowing the anti-apartheid movement to gain support across the globe. Source: Haaretz

Apartheid Desmond Tutu

Desmond Tutu is a retired South African Anglican bishop who gained fame as a political activist and avid apartheid opponent in the 1980s. After the Soweto uprising and subsequent deaths, Tutu supported an economic boycott of his home country and organized marches. He frequently compared apartheid to Nazism and was jailed twice because of his beliefs. Source: Denver Post

Apartheid Elections

Nelson Mandela was released from prison on February 11, 1990 following the unbanning of the African National Congress on February 2. The National Party government agreed to talks with the ANC to negotiate the end of apartheid. These talks led to a new constitution and the first free elections in 1994. Source: South Africa

Apartheid Mandela Presidency

The first free elections in the nation led to the appointment of Nelson Mandela, the first black president of South Africa. He ran on the AFC platform. Mandela served for five years and inherited a nation that suffered massive disparities in wealth between black and white communities. Millions of black families lacked sanitation, clean water and education. Source: JTA

Apartheid After

Twenty years following the end of apartheid, sanitation, education and health issues are still of great concern. South Africa has one of the highest rates of crime in the world and is frequently used as an example of the global AIDS crisis. The unemployment rate hovers at 25 percent and the ANC remains in power with little competition. While the nation has made giant steps toward amending its violent past, South Africa’s future success will be determined by the government’s focus on its people and the people’s willingness to hold it accountable. Source: NPR

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“Monsters In Paris” Highlights Human Fascination With The Macabre

Halloween may well have passed us by, but monsters have never been deterred by the dictates of mere Gregorian calendars. After all, the human fascination with the morbid can be seen across borders and time. To highlight this, the French website Golem13 took Parisian cityscapes and inserted into them many famous horror movie characters we all know and love. Like visions of some Hollywood-inspired nightmare, our most chilling horror icons have invaded France.

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Monsters In Paris It

Be wary when walking next to the sewers of Paris; you might find yourself being taunted by this red haired menace. If you get pulled down under, don’t fret, Pennywise is sure to remind you that “they all float down here.” Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Alien

Not even Earth is safe from the alien Ripley had to face back in 1979. Be sure to check with your doctor if you have any chest-bursting symptoms or unusual parasites clinging to your face. Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Shining

Wandering the streets of Paris with all these monsters about, he’s going to need a faster tricycle. It’s a good thing that Danny always knows what’s coming! Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Jason

Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Ring

If Samara from The Ring can travel through a TV screen, then a glass store display window will be no obstacle for her. Who thought it was a good idea to bring that video tape into circulation, anyway? Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Myers

Even if Halloween is over, Michael Myers is always out there creeping about during the night and slaughtering anyone who gets in the way of finding his family. Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Chucky

Dolls in general are just plain creepy, but if you see this doll lurking around a playground at night, it would be a good idea to high-tail it out of there; especially if it holds the soul of a serial killer. Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Loch Ness

Everybody always tries to disprove the Loch Ness Monster’s existence, but look, he’s right here in Paris. Everyone can put their theories to rest; Nessie is alive and well, and dining on fancy French cuisine. Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Evil Dead

A trap door in the sidewalk is weird. What’s even weirder? Seeing a possessed woman frantically trying to escape from it. Hopefully a copy of the Necronomicon can be found in France; otherwise she is probably going to swallow your soul. Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris BWP

A bravery award goes to anyone who figures out the secret of the Paris Blair Witch. There is sure to be hysteric crying and nose-dripping as you try to document the fantastical horrors you have witnessed. Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Spider

Giant spiders have terrorized us in films and nightmares for longer than anyone can remember. You are going to need an awfully big newspaper to take care of this guy. Maybe coming to Paris wasn’t the best idea… Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Exorcist

Hope you have a priest on speed-dial! Regan has levitated very far from home - and brought her peculiar “disease” with her. Modern medicine doesn’t possess any cure for this particular illness. Source: Golem 13Source: Golem 13

Monsters In Paris Aliens

We thought one alien was enough to keep our hands full, but now there are multiple aliens? A horror sequel’s motto is always ‘Go big or go home!’ Looks like it’s time to go home. Source: Golem 13

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