Typhoid Mary And A History Of Communicable Diseases

The story of Typhoid Mary is particularly interesting in an age where ebola and other serious diseases threaten the lives of many. Quarantined for what she considered to be a faulty diagnosis, Mary was one of the first “healthy carriers” of typhoid fever, an often-fatal communicable illness. Over the past century, Mary’s story has brought up many issues whose impact can still be seen today, especially those regarding civil liberties, public health, and how the government reconciles both. This is the story of Mary Mallon, the woman behind Typhoid Mary.

Mary Mallon was an Irish immigrant who first came to the United States as a teenager. To survive, she held a number of domestic jobs, often as a household cook. In 1906, Mary was hired as a cook by Charles Henry Warren and his vacationing family. In early autumn, six of the 11 Warren household members were infected with typhoid fever. To determine how the family caught the disease, Warren hired sanitary engineer George Soper, who had experience with typhoid fever outbreaks.

Political Cartoon on Typhoid

An old cartoon shows that illnesses like typhoid can be prevented. Source: Monster Brains

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New Study On Parental Happiness Shows The Third Time Isn’t The Charm

parental happiness

Sorry, Danny, but your parents were happier when your sisters were born. Source: Manny Photography

The law of diminishing marginal utility might be an economics term, but according to a recent study it might apply to families, too. An 18-year-long study on parental happiness (the longest running study ever performed on the subject) revealed that the birth of a third child child produces a “negligible” increase in the happiness of parents. Compare that to a two-year-long surge in parental happiness surrounding the birth of a first child, and about half that at the birth of a second child, and we may have a new kind of “Middle Child Syndrome” vying for our attention.

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The World Before God Created It

World Before God Dawn

Source: Wikipedia

As the Sun set on the evening of what would someday be known as Saturday, October 22, 4004 BCE, nobody in the world could imagine what the next 6,000 years would be like. The people of that time—all 14 million of them—lived in a world of stone and wood. With few exceptions, they knew nothing beyond family and clan, trade routes and war, Earth and the sky. This day, this Saturday, was special, and nobody in the world at the time could have told you why, because it is only special to us.

World Before God Mesopotamia Temple

Source: Study Blue

The center of the world at this time is Mesopotamia. Here, during what historians would someday call the Uruk Period, some of the world’s first cities have grown up. Some of the cities of the Fertile Crescent, such as Jericho, are already so old that their founding is as remote from the people of 4004 BCE as that date is from us. For 5,000 years, the people of this land have farmed a fertile hybrid of two grasses that they—and we—know as kweit, or “wheat.” Some use copper, but bronze working is yet a far-off dream, and iron is all but unknown among them. Their land is lush and fertile, but the climate is changing, and soon their descendants will subsist in an arid dustbowl.

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Your GIF Guide To How Muscles Work

How Muscles Work

Now that you know how they work, it’s time to actually use them. In 2011, the Centers for Disease Control found that barely 20% of Americans get recommended levels of exercise, and that over 25% of Americans don’t devote any time to physical activity. Meanwhile, obesity is increasingly becoming a national security issue.

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