27 Incredible Underwater Pictures of Schooling Fish

Like starling murmurations, schooling fish are one of the world’s most wondrous natural phenomena. Not to be confused with shoaling fish (which refers to fish who gather to swim together socially), schooling fish are defined as a large group of fish that swim synchronously.

Swimming in a school allows fish to protect themselves from predators, improve foraging, and swim more efficiently. While scientists are still working to better understand fish schooling, experiments over the past few decades have provided much information about how (and why) fishes form schools.

For one, schooling is most likely a genetic behavior. In fact, a combination of behavioral traits and unique sensory abilities allow fish to move fluidly and in sync with the school. While schooling fish make moving in perfect time look easy, there are various factors that the fish must instantaneously account for; the fish must quickly respond to water currents and react instantly to changes within the group. Scientists have discovered that fish base their decisions on a synthesis of where all the fish in its field of view are headed, instead of following its nearest neighbors.

Check out these 27 pictures of the incredible phenomenon:

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The Strangest Exoplanets We Have Ever Discovered

By definition, an exoplanet simply refers to a planet which orbits a star other than our Sun. This means that many of the trillions of trillions of planets that probably exist classify as exoplanets. One notable exception is rogue planets – planets that don’t orbit stars, instead directly orbiting the galaxies themselves.

Despite there likely being an absolutely huge number of planets in the Universe, we’ve only discovered about 1800 so far. That’s because spotting a planet is a lot harder than spotting a star – they are much smaller and much dimmer. Even the techniques we use to track down new planets like transit photometry and radial velocity work best at finding gas giants like Jupiter, not small rocky planets like Earth. Despite all of these obstacles, we have enjoyed great success when it comes to uncovering our galactic neighbors and, just like in your own neighborhood, some of them are a little peculiar.

1. Kepler-186f

Strangest Exoplanets Kepler

Source: UPR

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Why Not Vaccinating Your Kids Seems Safe (But Isn’t)

What every anti-vaxxer imagines, child in pain under vaccine

What anti-vaxxers imagines when they think “vaccine”- pain for their child. But it isn’t that simple. Source: Rauf Maltas, Getty

Last year, a massive measles outbreak in California led officials at the Centers For Disease Control to wonder just what might be causing so many new infections of a disease they thought had under control. The answer was simple: increasingly more people are choosing not to vaccinate their children.

The process of vaccination involves injecting a small amount of deactivated or dead virus into the body so that the body’s natural defenses can strengthen an immunity to it. It’s kind of like getting the other team’s playbook before the big game. These deactivated forms of viruses are used to prevent an extensive list of diseases, including pneumonia, whooping cough, influenza, and tuberculosis–preventable diseases that kill millions of people every year.

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Why Can You See Your Breath When It’s Cold Out?

It’s winter. It’s cold. You’re miserable. Since you’re likely spending more time indoors, why not learn a little bit more about how wintry conditions make it so you can see your breath–and happiness–exiting your body?

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