Wikimedia CommonsCinco de Mayo is not Mexican Independence Day. Mexico celebrates its independence on September 16th.
Wikimedia CommonsThus, September 16 is a much more universally celebrated holiday than Cinco de Mayo.
Wikimedia CommonsWhat Cinco de Mayo does celebrate is the victory of the Mexican army over occupying French forces at the Battle of Puebla in 1862. Within and around Puebla, “Cinco de Mayo” is known as El Día de la Batalla de Puebla (the Day of Puebla Battle).
Wikimedia CommonsBecause of this, Cinco de Mayo, in Mexico, is most celebrated in Puebla, and is honored more so with battle reenactments and military parades than with tequila.
Wikimedia CommonsBenito Juarez (above) was Mexico’s president during the first Cinco de Mayo, leading the country in the years after their historic victory.
Wikimedia CommonsBecause of economic hardships from other wars waged, it was Juarez who was forced to suspend repayment of Mexico's debts to France, Spain and England. This caused those countries to launch the invasion that soon led to the Battle at Puebla.
Wikimedia CommonsJuarez's order delayed repayment for two years. Spain, Britain and France responded by sending naval forces demanding reimbursement.
Wikimedia CommonsSpain and Britain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew forces, but France invaded, seeking repayment and land rights.
Wikimedia CommonsA French army of 6,000 faced strong resistence in Peubla where a small, ill-equipped Mexican army of about 2,000 defeated the French and ultimately stopped the invasion.
Ignacio Zeragosa, who led the Mexican army during the Battle at Puebla, lost about 100 men. The French lost nearly 500.
Wikimedia CommonsHowever, the victory of Cinco de Mayo was short-lived. France's Napoleon III sent 30,000 troops one year later and took over Mexico City, installing Maximilian (above) as ruler.
Wikimedia CommonsThough Abraham Lincoln sympathized with Mexico during the French invasion, he took a neutral stance due to the ongoing conflict of the Civil War.
Wikimedia CommonsBut with the help Mexico did receive from the U.S. military, they eventually expelled the French and executed Maximillian in 1867.
Wikimedia CommonsThis ultimate victory, and the Battle at Puebla in particular, restored national pride in a war-torn Mexico.
Wikimedia CommonsIf that victory had not come, the consequences could have impacted both the U.S. and Mexico immeasurably. Napoleon III (above) had plans to establish Mexico as a base to support the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
Wikimedia CommonsMany historians believe that if it were not for the Mexican victory during the Pueblo Battle, the Confederates would have won the Civil War and changed the fate of the United States forever.
Wikimedia CommonsDespite the historic implications of this battle, Cinco de Mayo is not a federal holiday in most of Mexico.
Wikimedia CommonsIn fact, it is, in many ways, a bigger deal in the U.S. Cinco de Mayo’s appropriation by America stems from a time when the U.S. was trying to appeal to — and win over — the increasing Mexican population living in the country.
Wikimedia CommonsFor example, Franklin Roosevelt likely boosted Cinco de Mayo’s popularity within the United States by enacting the “Good Neighbor Policy” in 1933 to improve relations with Latino countries.
Wikimedia CommonsThree decades later, the Chicano movement spread Mexican-American pride nationwide, increasing the holiday’s popularity even more.
Wikimedia CommonsAnd today, Hispanics make up 17% of the US population (55 million) “making people of Hispanic origin the nation’s largest ethnic or racial minority,” according to the US Census.
Wikimedia CommonsThus it's not exactly surprising that there are now more Cinco de Mayo festivals in the United States than there are in Mexico.
FlickrTypically, a Cinco de Mayo festival in the United States consists of live Mariachi music, traditional Mexican food and drink, and plenty of dancing.
Wikimedia CommonsMariachi music dates back to the early 19th century. The instruments used in a typical Mariachi performance are guitars, bass guitars, viheulas, trumpets, violins, and occassionally a harp.
FlickrThe traditional dance often seen during Cinco de Mayo celebrations is called Baile Folklorico, literally “folkloric dance.” There are variations, but in the Jalisco style, women wear bright, ruffled skirts and men wear charro (cowboy) clothing and sombreros.
FlickrCinco de Mayo's present association with binge drinking is the result of savvy ad campaigns. Mexican migration really took off in the 1980s and brought millions of young Mexicans into the United States. To many American alcohol corporations, this meant a huge business opportunity.
Wikimedia CommonsTequila shots are often the drink of choice for Cinco de Mayo, but quality tequila is made from 100% agave nectar, and aged tequilas known as anejo or reposado are intended to be sipped slowly and savored, not consumed as quickly as possible, as it so often is by Americans on Cinco de Mayo.
Wikimedia CommonsIn fact, the United States consumes twice as much tequila as Mexico (tequila's country of origin).
Wikimedia CommonsOn the food side of things, despite what Americans think, tacos and burritos aren’t the preferred choice for a traditional Cinco de Mayo celebration. Rather, enchiladas, tamales, and mole poblano make up more traditional dishes as they require more hands--and thus more family interaction--to execute successfully.
FlickrAccording to the California Avocado Commission, more than 87 million pounds of avocados (175 million individual avocados) are consumed on Cinco de Mayo every year.
Wikimedia CommonsThe largest Cinco de Mayo festival is in Los Angeles. It is called Fiesta Broadway and draws in hundreds of thousands of people every year.
FlickrIn Arizona, Cinco de Mayo is celebrated throughout Phoenix and surrounding cities. In Chandler, Cinco de Mayo festivities include an annual Chihuahua race.
Wikimedia CommonsMultiple cities in the United States celebrate Cinco de Mayo with weekend-long festivals, including Denver, Chicago, Portland and San Diego.
PixabayAt the Abottsford Skydiving Center in Vancouver, Canada, Cinco de Mayo is celebrated a little differently: skydiving, music, and food make up the festivities, but not necessarily in that order.
Wikimedia CommonsIn the Cayman Islands, Cinco de Mayo is celebrated not with a Mariachi, but with an annual air guitar competition instead.
Like this gallery? Share it!